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Lyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection reagents were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA), Vector Laboratories (Burlingame, CA), Upstate (Billerica, MA), Chemicon (Temecula, CA), or Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). The insulin ultra-sensitive ELISA kit was obtained from ALPCO Diagnostics (Salem, NH). Histochoice fixative was purchased from Amresco, Inc (Solon, OH). Antibodies to tumo
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N male rats.Parameter Duration of aggression/sec GROUP Control Leaded gasoline Unleaded gasoline Tooth chattering 0.9 ?0.23 4.7 ?1.1 a** 4.4 ?0.92 a* Threat posture 1.5 ?0.54 6 ?1.2 a* 6.2 ?1.31 a* Leaping and biting 1.9 ?0.72 5.5 ?1.45 5.9 ?1.50 Boxing position 1 ?0.42 2.2 ?0.63 2.2 ?0.Values are expressed as means ?SE a: significantly different from the control group. Asterisks indicate the leve
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Ive behaviour in male rats.Parameter GROUP Tooth chattering Control Leaded gasoline Unleaded gasoline 1.2 ?0.33 3.7 ?0.63 a* 4 ?0.87 a* Number of aggression events Threat posture 1.1 ?0.31 3.9 ?0.43 a** 3.6 ?0.87 a* Leaping and biting 0.9 ?0.35 3.7 ?0.58 a** 3.4 ?0.70 a* Boxing position 0.8 ?0.25 2.7 ?0.47 a* 3.2 ?0.74 a**Values are expressed as means ?SE a: significantly different from the contro
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S described elsewhere [79]. For molecular and biochemical assays, cerebella were snap-frozen in a dry ice-methanol bath and stored at -80 . We studied cerebellar tissue because the cerebellum: 1) requires intact insulin/IGF signaling to maintain its structural and functional integrity [80,81]; 2) is severely damaged by i.c.-STZ mediated neurodegeneration [19,22]; 3) although relatively spared, it
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Lyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection reagents were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA), Vector Laboratories (Burlingame, CA), Upstate (Billerica, MA), Chemicon (Temecula, CA), or Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). The insulin ultra-sensitive ELISA kit was obtained from ALPCO Diagnostics (Salem, NH). Histochoice fixative was purchased from Amresco, Inc (Solon, OH). Antibodies to tumo
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Fects is clearly warranted. In this regard, guidance may be obtained from what is already known about STZ-induced diseases. STZ, like other N-nitroso compounds, causes cellular injury and disease by functioning as: 1) an alkylating agent and potent mutagen [14]; 2) an inducer of DNA adducts leading to increased apoptosis [23]; 3) a mediator of unscheduled DNA synthesis, triggering cell death [14];
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Al microenvironment. Cell Cycle. 2010;9(17):3515?3. 56. Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Balliet RM, Rivadeneira DB, Chiavarina B, Pavlides S, Wang C, et al. Oxidative stress in cancer associated fibroblasts drives tumorstroma co-evolution: A new paradigm for understanding tumor metabolism, the field effect and genomic instability in cancer cells. Cell Cycle. 2010;9(16):3256?6. 57. Chiavarina B, Whitaker-M
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Lusions: Early limited exposure to nitrosamines exacerbates the adverse effects of later chronic high dietary fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. The mechanism involves increased generation of ceramides and probably other toxic lipids in brain.Background The prevalence rates of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabol